To know gum surgery and its contents, we need to first understand the anatomy of the gum and to diagnose the disease we need to know the health conditions of the gingival tissue. Cementation of the root surface of periodontal fibers and alveolar jaw bone is formed.
The clinical structure of the gingiva and surrounding tissues
Clinically, the gingiva consists of three parts, the free gingiva, the gingiva, and the interdental gingiva. The gum itself is a keratinized soft tissue that covers 1 to 9 mm wide with a tooth circumference. In the definition of the gum, it refers to its softness, not to be confused with the hard tissue around the tooth, to refer to its keratinization as a non-alveolar mucosa. Differentiate keratinization and emphasize that the tooth is gingerbread so as not to be confused with the keratinized tissue that is distant from the tooth.
This part of the gingiva lacks adhesion to the tooth and bone. The gingival groove is the space between the surface of the tooth and the free gingiva, which is normally between one and three millimeters deep with the level of gingival attachment to the CEJ. The free gut and the healthy gum are next to the tooth and enamel crown.
The proximal space between the teeth is called the interdental gum.
Adherent gum This part of the gum starts from the adherent epithelium and continues to the non-keratinized mucosa. The adherent gum is attached to the lower bone by connective and periosteal tissue fibers and prevents gingival movement due to tongue, cheek and lip movements. That is, even a small amount of adhesive gum is essential to ensure the permanent health of the periodontium.
Clinical View of Healthy Gums
How does a healthy gingiva look? The gum is a soft, keratinized tissue that encompasses the teeth. Periodontal catheterization consists of tissues comprising the gum, PDL, bone and cementum. These catheters are divided into supportive tissues, including PDL, bone and cementum, and the gum whose primary function is to protect the human or lower tissues. In healthy adults, the gingival rim is naturally one to three millimeters above the CEJ.
The gum is anatomically divided into three parts:
Marginal gum, sticky gum, interdental gum
The marginal gingiva is the gingival end of the gum and extends round to the tooth.
Adhesive gum is a resilient, elastic tissue in the apical marginal gingiva that adheres firmly to the periosteum of the alveolar bone and tooth. Adhesion width is one of the most important clinical indicators. The gingival and depth of the salcus or the periodontal envelope floor of the adhesive gum should not be confused with the keratinized gingival because the keratinized gingiva also contains the marginal gingiva.
Dental gum covers the gum space underneath the intercostal contact site The gum is either pyramidal or entire.
Although due to methodological limitations on access to the target population, there is no conclusive information on the prevalence of gum disease in the country, but evidence suggests a high incidence of gingivitis or gingivitis in different populations. Dental plaque gingivitis is the most common form. Gingivitis is a disease that affects a large percentage of the population in all societies. Accumulation of microbial biofilms on dental surfaces results in inflammation in the surrounding gingival tissues. With increasing knowledge and availability of new clinical evidence on the nature and extent of different types of gingivitis, Various factors have been identified L impact of viral, fungal chemicals are neoplasms, etc. can cause gingivitis.
Swelling of the gum
Gum inflammation has three stages: primary, primary and consolidated lesions or chronic gingivitis with no clear boundary between them. Also, advanced lesions are caused by inflammation of the deep periodontal tissue and resorption of tooth bone occurs at this stage.
Clinical features of gingivitis
The presence of any of the following clinical symptoms may be prominent symptoms of gingivitis clinical presentation:
Erythema and spongy gum tissue, bleeding after stimulation, change of gingival contour or form, presence of mass or plaque without radiographic evidence
The inflammatory mediators produced during the interaction between host and microbial plaque have a negative effect on the protective function of the gingival surface or epithelium, so removal of etiologic factors such as plaque-blocking agents such as mass, organelle, etc. is critical.
Classification of gingivitis by period and term
Gingivitis is divided into acute gingivitis, recurrent gingivitis, and chronic gingivitis, by period and duration.
Acute Gingivitis This type of gingivitis can have a sudden onset of pain and its acute course can occur in a short period of time.
Recurrent gingivitis is a recurrent gingivitis that recurs after treatment or recovery
Chronic gingivitis develops slowly over a long period of time and is usually painless. This form is the most common form of gingivitis.
Classification of gingivitis by location
Topical gingivitis that is confined to the gums of one or more teeth.
Disseminated gingivitis that engages the gums of the teeth.
Marginal gingivitis, which is a disease of the gingival margin and may also be part of the adjacent adhesive gingiva.
Papillary gingivitis involves the papilla between the teeth and often extends to the adjacent marginal gingiva.
Interdental gingival papillae often have more disease than the marginal gingiva, and the first symptom of gingivitis is more often seen in the gingiva.
Extensive gingivitis affects all three parts of the gums including the marginal gums, the adhesive gums and the intercostal papillae.
Gingival disease is often referred to as a combination of the above terms, for example, localized marginal gingivitis that is confined to one or more areas of the marginal gingiva, or extensive localized gingivitis that affects the marginal gingiva to the mucobuccal fold in a confined area called local papillary gingivitis. One or more intercostal spaces are involved in an area.
Disseminated marginal gingivitis is the involvement of the marginal gingiva in all teeth, which often affects the dental papilla. Finally, diffuse gingival gingivitis, which encompasses all parts of the alveolar mucosa and adherent gingiva, and in some cases indistinguishable gingival mucosa. Systemic conditions may be involved in the development of this type of gingivitis, so systematic evaluation of the patient in suspicious cases is suggested.
What is gingivitis caused by plaque?
Classification of gum disease is based on the presence or absence of microbial plaque and factors affecting inflammatory conditions of the gingiva. Inflammation caused by plaque gingivitis can also be affected by systemic or local factors. Dental-related anatomics, dental restorations, orthodontic devices, root fractures and cervical root resorption Systemic factors such as endocrine disorders, blood disorders, medications and malnutrition can also affect plaque inflammation.
It can occur with topical predisposing factors such as defective repair and cervical root resorption or with no topical predisposing factor.
Gingivitis associated with systemic agents
Evidence suggests that gingival tissue is a target for steroid sex hormones. The mechanism of action of these hormones is unclear, but they appear to exert their effect through alterations in the microbial composition of the immune system. Vascular properties and gum function in the gums.
Gingivitis associated with puberty
The maturation of events is much greater than the endocrine events that lead to changes in one's physical appearance and behavior. The severity of gingivitis in adults is affected by various factors including plaque, plaque control, oral decay, oral respiration, cravings or disorganization. Tooth and tooth eruption.
Menstrual period gingivitis
The most common gingival inflammation change associated with menstrual gingivitis is very mild, more specifically gingival pus or gingival exudate increases by 20% during ovulation, and other symptoms of inflammation are not clinically visible.
In the second and third trimesters, the increase in the prevalence and severity of gingivitis occurs due to a significant increase in plasma levels of steroid hormones. In addition, gingival probinep depth is increased and bleeding during brushing or probing and gingival fluid volume increase.
Symptoms of pregnancy-related gingivitis are similar to plaque-induced gingivitis, except that pregnancy-associated gingivitis has clear symptoms of inflammation in the presence of low levels of plaque. Pregnant granuloma associated with pregnancy tumors has been described about 100 years ago.
Pregnancy tumor is not a real tumor, but rather an exacerbated inflammatory response to external stimulation leading to a single polypoid hemangioma that easily bleeds with mild stimulation. Clinically associated with pregnancy is a fungal-like granuloma granuloma. Exophytic that originates from the proximal margin or more commonly from the proximal gingiva. This lesion can be with or without base. The prevalence of this lesion is about half to 5% and is more common in the maxilla and may be even in the first trimester. Occasionally, the lesion either shrinks or is completely absent after delivery Emerges.